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Jamshedpur is home to the first private iron and steel company of India. The areas surrounding Jamshedpur are rich in minerals, including iron ore, coal, manganese bauxite and lime. It is a modern, industrial city; the main industries being iron and steel, truck manufacturing, tinplate production, cement and other small and medium scale industries revolving around these products.

The largest factory is that of Tata Steel (the erstwhile Tata Iron and Steel Company or TISCO), situated almost at the center of the city. Tata Steel is the largest iron and steel producing plant in India, as well as the oldest. It is ranked 401 in the 2012 Fortune Global 500 ranking of the world's biggest corporations. It is the eighth most-valuable Indian brand according to an annual survey conducted by Brand Finance and The Economic Times in 2010. Currently the plant has 9 Blast Furnaces and is an employer to some 26500 employees. Plans have been made for the expansion of Tata Steel's existing plant at Jamshedpur from 7 million tonnes per annum to 10 million tonnes per annum. It would then be the first plant in the world to have 10 million tonne capacity in a single campus. The steel plant covers around a fourth of the land area of Jamshedpur, and has two inland water lakes.

Tata has won awards like the Prime Minister's Trophy for Best Integrated Steel Plant for a record five times,[25] ranked World’s Best Steel Maker for three times by World Steel Dynamics,[26] world renowned Deming Prize for major advances in quality improvement.

The other major factory in the city is Tata Motors with Telcon, which manufactures heavy vehicles and construction/earth moving equipment. Tata Motors was previously called The Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (TELCO), as railway locomotives were once manufactured here. The plant spread over 822 acres[27] is one of the largest in the country and at peak rate can roll out 450 vehicles per day.[28] It is the world's eighteenth-largest motor vehicle manufacturing company, fourth-largest truck manufacturer and second-largest bus manufacturer by volume.Tata Motors is ranked 314th in the 2012 Fortune Global 500 ranking of the world's biggest corporations.

Tata Cummins Ltd. (also known as TCL1) is situated beside Tata Motors.It is a joint venture of Tata Motors and Cummins India ltd., manufacting diesel engines for vehicles assembled at Tata Motors. Other than engines for vehicles, it also manufactures engines for generators and marine use.

Lafarge Cement, earlier Tata Cement, is located near Tata Motors. Along with the smokestacks of Tata Power, a coal fired captive power station that supplies a great deal of the city's electricity, it can be conspicuously seen from the railway tracks while coming to Jamshedpur by rail.

Tata Tinplate (the erstwhile Tinplate Co. of India Ltd.) manufactures tinplate. It was originally a British company built in Golmuri, later on taken over by Tata. Another factory, located near Tata Motors, is the Indian Steel and Wire products (ISWP). ISWP was reopened after more than five years by Tata Steel. ISWP resumed production in its wire mill on January 2, 2004, after its takeover by Tata Steel, and has commenced its rod mill operations.
Other industries in the city include TRF Limited, which manufactures bulk material handling and processing machines and other engineering goods, Timken manufacturers of industrial bearings, Tata Ryersons, Agrico, a subsidiary of Tata Steel, manufactures agricultural implements, and Tata Yodogawa Ltd manufactures rolls and dies for rolling mills.

Praxair and Brin's Oxygen Company (BOC), are producers of liquefied oxygen, nitrogen and other gases, they both have plants adjacent to the steel mill.Usha Martin located in Adityapur is a wire rope manufacturing company. Other companies are ABB, TCS, L&T, M.N.Dastur, Danielle, Italiam Pianti.

Jamshedpur Utilities and Services Company (JUSCO) was carved out of Tata Steel from its Town Services Division in 2004. JUSCO is today India’s only comprehensive urban infrastructure service provider.

Most of the smaller companies are located in the 'Adityapur Industrial Estate' (33,970 acres, 53 sq. mile) which has been Asia's largest Industrial hub for long. About 1,200 industries are located here and about 250 are under construction. There are about 20 Large Scale Industries located like TGS, Usha Martin, Adhunik Group, RSB etc. Adityapur Industrial Estate have an average annual aroduction of Rs.4,950 crores.

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